Katsina is a historic kingdom and emirate in northern Nigeria. According to tradition, the kingdom, one of the Hausa Bakwai (“Seven True Hausa States”), was founded in the 10th or 11th century. Islām was introduced in the 1450s, and Muhammad Korau (reigned late 15th century) was Katsina’s first Muslim king. During his reign camel caravans crossed the Sahara from Ghudāmis (Ghadames), Tripoli, and Tunis southward to Katsina and brought such prosperity to the state that it became caught in the rivalry between the great West African empires of Songhai (Gao) and Bornu. In 1513 Katsina was conquered by the Songhai.
Katsina entered its greatest period of prosperity in the early 18th century. Besides being the leading Hausa commercial state, it replaced Timbuktu (Tombouctou) as the chief West African centre of Islāmic studies.
In the 15th century the Fulani herdsmen settled in Katsina and in 1804 the Fulani jihad (holy war) leader, Usman dan Fodio, led a revolt (beginning in Gobir) against the Hausa overlords. The Fulani leader Umaru Dallaji captured Katsina town in 1806 and was named the first Katsina emir with Katsina as his seat.
Katsina has a lot of historical heritage around the different dynasties that has ruled Katsina till date. Here is a list of the acknowledged dynasties according to history.
The Durbawa people were said to be the founders of the ancient Katsina kingdom. It is said that Katsina was named after a Princes of Daura who married Janzama king of Durbawa, who ruled at Durbi-Takusheyi and whose name is still preserved as a rock close to Mani. There is no detailed written document about the number of Kings under this dynasty. But Janzama is said to be the last ruler of Durbawa. HE was overthrown by Kuayau the first ruler under the Kumayau dynasty.
This was the second dynasty after Durbawa. This dynasty produced seven kings of Katsina from Kumayau to Sanau. During this dynasty appointing a new king was through a wrestling contest whereby the winner became the new king.
This dynasty produced 31 Kings of Katsina starting from Muhammadu Korau the first Muslim ruler to Magajin Haladu. Muhammadu Korau became a new king under the third dynasty by defeating Sanau in a wrestling contest. Since then the kingship has been hereditary and restricted only to royal princes.
This dynasty came as a result of the Jihad of Shehu Usman Danfodio in 1804. The Jihad was led by Malam Ummarun Dallaje, Malam Mammam Na Alhaji and Malam Ummarun Dunyawa who received the Jihad flag from Malam Muhammadu Bello son of Danfodio on Shehu's behalf. This dynasty produced eight Emirs of Katsina from Malam Ummarun Dallaje (1807) to Malam Yaro in 1906.
This dynasty is the fourth dynasty after the Durbawa dynasty. The depositon of Sarki Abubaka amd Malam Yero by the British colonial masters brought about the beginning of Sullubawa or the Dikko dynasty. This dynasty produced four Emirs of Katsina from Sarki Muhammadu Dikko 1906 to Sarki Abdulmumini Kabir Usman, the current Emir.
(Research: National <useum, Katsina and brittanica.com)